Kaz Maslanka's interests in the 1980s began to move from using art to transform aural experiences into a visual language to transforming a visual experience into a mathematical language. Maslanka has placed his thoughts on visual perception directly inside Newtonian kinematics to create metaphors that point where space, time and perception meet. He was curious of the psychophysical implications of his work but was more interested and motivated by the aesthetic process. Kaz's main focus was blending the aesthetics of Math and Physics with that of conceptual Art. He has also used similar principles to create. Mathematical Poetry

Visual Kinematics and Psychovectors is a series of conceptual art works concerning itself with recontextualizing verbal thoughts on the mechanics of visual perception into a physics paradigm.

This document is a primer to understanding
visual kinematics and the psychovector series, which are eight
conceptual-like art pieces. (1981 through 1988) The document is
intended for people with basic math, physics, and art backgrounds.

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PSYCHO-VECTOR SERIES

We can ask the questions: Why

If we sweep our hand through the water in a
swimming pool ** Figure 1
.** and have the hand positioned so that the greatest
area of our hand (the palm) is facing parallel to the direction
of movement we feel resistance through the water. This resistance
is less than the resistance we experience when having the greatest
area of our hand facing normal or perpendicular to the movement.

If we look at the two triangular images ** figure 3... Equal
momentum study of isoceles images ... seven times diference in
velocity 1981 36" x 48" oil paint on canvas**
the question arises: which image is implying the greater velocity.
Let's limit our viewing context to one direction (the direction
toward the top of the picture) and view it as a flat two dimensional
image.

Almost everyone will agree the narrow image
on the left looks faster, but why? Because the slope of the lines
coming from the vertex is

greater on the left image one has the illusion of greater velocity.
The lines rise toward the top of the picture faster than they
run across

toward the side of the picture. If we want to describe this mathematically,
we can create a ratio and count the units the line rises

and divide it by the number of units it runs. Thus: slope=rise/run.
** figure 4. **The line rises
seven units as it runs one unit. Thus:

rise/run=7/1=7. The slope of

mathematically. As we look back at

is traveling seven times faster.

Let's ask another question...which image is the more massive?...why?... the image on the right, because it covers a greater area appears more massive.

In Physics momentum (p) is defined as the mass
multiplied by velocity, or p=mv. Let's imagine we have two marbles
that are made of different materials. One is made of wood and
the other of steel. If we throw these two marbles at someone's
chest with the same velocity (or speed) which will hurt more when
it hits? ** figure 6. **Of
course the one made of steel hurts more. It has more momentum.
The velocity of the marbles is the same but the steel has more
mass thus giving it more momentum (mass times velocity) . Given
the same velocity, more mass means more momentum.

We have described the velocity of the triangular
images as the slope of the lines relative to the base of the picture
and we have determined the mass to be the area . ** figure
3.**Given this we can describe the visual momentum (pv)
as the slope times the area. pv = slope(area)

At the risk of being confusing I would like
to substitute the term slope with a new synonymous trigonometric
term, cotangent of 1/2 the vertex angle (cot (a/2)). ** figure 7.** Also, we will call
the area of a triangle 'K'. Thus K is a variable representing
area or visual mass. Now the equation for visual momentum is pv
= cot(a/2)K

Now we can describe the visual momentum in
both triangular shapes ** figure
3. **as having the same momentum; but the image

on the left has seven times more velocity. It turns out that any isosceles (triangles with two sides of the same length) images of the

same height will have the same momentum. That is the mass of one makes up for the velocity of the other and vice versa.

**figure 8... Equal momentum study of isoceles and scalene
images ... three times diference in velocity 1981 36" x 48"
oil paint on canvas** shows an
example of equal momentum in images other than isosceles. The
isosceles image on the left has three times the velocity of the
scalene (triangles having unequal sides) on the right and both have equal
momentum.

Physics can define force (F) as the change
in momentum per unit time. What does this mean? Take for example
the egg toss game where a two person team competes with one person
tossing a chicken egg to the other person. Each completion requires
increasing the distance the egg is thrown-stepping backwards one
step. The team who can toss and catch the egg the greatest distance
without it breaking is the winner. In essence the object of the
game is to change the momentum of the egg from maximum (when the
egg is flying in the air) to minimum (when the egg is caught)
over the greatest amount of time. ** figure
9. **This can be done by slowing the egg gradually as
it is caught; as opposed to catching the egg quickly in a short
period of time, applying a greater

force usually breaking the egg. To reiterate: the change of momentum per time is force... if the egg is slowed quickly over a short period of

time it creates more force; if the egg is slowed over a long period of time it creates less force.

Let's talk about visual force. We know howto
define visual momentum so we can talk about the change in momentum
which is initially zero and is finally at maximum. We see this
in the images of ** figure
3. **but we don't know how much time has elapsed. However
we can see a distance of travel implied

average time. This turns out to be half the base of the triangular image.

and velocity=rise over run (visual kinematics). What we have defined is the average time (the final time plus the initial time divided by two) .

What we are seeking is the definition of final time which is equal to twice the average time or 2t. Using this we can describe visual force

Fv =(Kcot(a/2))/2t (the change in visual momentum per unit time). Physics also describes energy as force times distance or E=Fd. Thus

visual energy is Ev =d(Kcot(a/2))/2t.

**figure 11. Equal force study of isoceles images 4 times
the difference in momentum 1984 36" x 48" oil paint
on canvas **is an example of
visual force: the left image has 4 times the momentum of the one
on the right and they both have equal force.

So far, we have limited our context to discussing
visual movement in one direction. A triangle actually moves in
three directions. **figure 12.** Before we talk about pandirectional movement we need
to introduce the concept of vectors. The definition of a vector
is any thing with magnitude and direction. If we throw a baseball
north at 30 miles per hour then it is a vector; 30 miles per hour
is the magnitude and north is the direction. A weight of 230 lb.
can be considered a vector, with the direction being down and
the 230 lb. being the magnitude. So each of the three individual
movements in a triangle can be considered a vector. ** figure 12.** A vector sum is the
addition of the individual components of two or more vectors.
Let's try to illustrate. Consider three people holding ropes tied
to a ring which is positioned between them.

Which direction will the ring move? It won't move toward either of the people in blue who are pulling harder, it will move between the two. It

can be said that the vector sum of the three people pulling on the rope has a certain magnitude and is in a direction between the two people

with the blue shirts. We can add the individual vectors together to see which way the object moves. The final magnitude and direction of the

object is called the resultant vector ... basically the result.

Coming back to the triangle, we see that we
have three visual momentum vectors or visual force vectors. **figure 12.** We can add the visual vectors
together to see which way the vector sum points or which way the
triangle visually moves. ** figure
14 ... Equal momentum vector sums 1984 36" x 48" oil
paint on canvas** is visually tricky because we may
read the left triangle to be moving down and to the right, but
if we think about the movement coming from the inside or center
of the triangle then we can see the vector sum would indicate
it to be moving up and to the left.

The next three works in this series involve momentum and force vector sumations and a visual energy sumation of an entire field of triangles. Because there are no units for this type of study, I gave the unit chron for visual time, Kandinskys for visual force, Apollinaires per meter chron for visual momentum and Mattas for visual energy. The resultant vectors are noted under the triangle field in each piece.

**figure
17 Psychovectors no.1 1988 36" x 48" oil paint on canvas.**

**figure
18 Psychovectors no.2 1988 36" x 48" oil paint on canvas.**

**figure
19 Psychovectors no.3 1988 36" x 48" oil paint on canvas. **

time.

North is actually the direction the camera is facing for the photographs but what Kaz

is asking you to do is to move yourself to believe that you are facing South in the right photo and notice that when you do the sun is now in the east which makes it morning and with the sun traversing the sky behind you, it would place you on the other side of the earth at summertime 6 months later thus the text under the photo with the camera facing south states: a longitude of E 83 degrees 47 minutes 48 seconds and latitude of S 37 degrees 41 minutes 30 seconds a date of February 18 and a time of 6:08 am standard. In affect what ones consciousness experiences is discontinuous leap through space and time or "quantum leap".

**Another piece concerning itself with proprioception
is **Quantum
Leap 2 (1980- photos and text 24" x 30" ) which
is 4 photos that are taken inside 4 different Wendys restaurants.
The camera now * is* actually facing the different
directions that are stated under the pictures.