# Art from 1980 thru 1990:

Kaz Maslanka's interests in the 1980s began to move from using art to transform aural experiences into a visual language to transforming a visual experience into a mathematical language. Maslanka has placed his thoughts on visual perception directly inside Newtonian kinematics to create metaphors that point where space, time and perception meet. He was curious of the psychophysical implications of his work but was more interested and motivated by the aesthetic process. Kaz's main focus was blending the aesthetics of Math and Physics with that of conceptual Art. He has also used similar principles to create. Mathematical Poetry

Visual Kinematics and Psychovectors is a series of conceptual art works concerning itself with recontextualizing verbal thoughts on the mechanics of visual perception into a physics paradigm.

This document is a primer to understanding visual kinematics and the psychovector series, which are eight conceptual-like art pieces. (1981 through 1988) The document is intended for people with basic math, physics, and art backgrounds.
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## PSYCHO-VECTOR SERIES We can ask the questions: Why is it that we can perceive visual movement in a static piece of artwork? And why is it that some images are perceived to imply movement of greater velocity than others?

If we sweep our hand through the water in a swimming pool Figure 1 . and have the hand positioned so that the greatest area of our hand (the palm) is facing parallel to the direction of movement we feel resistance through the water. This resistance is less than the resistance we experience when having the greatest area of our hand facing normal or perpendicular to the movement. Figure 2 . If the same amount of force is used we notice a greater speed of water when the palm is parallel to the movement. Seeing this experience as well as feeling it is an example of how the information from each of the senses is merged into the meaning of the experience. Later when we experience information from one sense we can recall the meaning or can implicitly experience information about the other senses because of our past experiences with similar situations.

If we look at the two triangular images figure 3... Equal momentum study of isoceles images ... seven times diference in velocity 1981 36" x 48" oil paint on canvas the question arises: which image is implying the greater velocity. Let's limit our viewing context to one direction (the direction toward the top of the picture) and view it as a flat two dimensional image.

Almost everyone will agree the narrow image on the left looks faster, but why? Because the slope of the lines coming from the vertex is
greater on the left image one has the illusion of greater velocity. The lines rise toward the top of the picture faster than they run across
toward the side of the picture. If we want to describe this mathematically, we can create a ratio and count the units the line rises
and divide it by the number of units it runs. Thus: slope=rise/run. figure 4. The line rises seven units as it runs one unit. Thus:
rise/run=7/1=7. The slope of figure 5. is one because the line rises one unit as it runs one unit. We can now describe the visual velocity
mathematically. As we look back at figure 3. we can see the left image has seven times the velocity as the right image...it looks as though it
is traveling seven times faster.

Let's ask another question...which image is the more massive?...why?... the image on the right, because it covers a greater area appears more massive.

In Physics momentum (p) is defined as the mass multiplied by velocity, or p=mv. Let's imagine we have two marbles that are made of different materials. One is made of wood and the other of steel. If we throw these two marbles at someone's chest with the same velocity (or speed) which will hurt more when it hits? figure 6. Of course the one made of steel hurts more. It has more momentum. The velocity of the marbles is the same but the steel has more mass thus giving it more momentum (mass times velocity) . Given the same velocity, more mass means more momentum.

We have described the velocity of the triangular images as the slope of the lines relative to the base of the picture and we have determined the mass to be the area . figure 3.Given this we can describe the visual momentum (pv) as the slope times the area. pv = slope(area)

At the risk of being confusing I would like to substitute the term slope with a new synonymous trigonometric term, cotangent of 1/2 the vertex angle (cot (a/2)). figure 7. Also, we will call the area of a triangle 'K'. Thus K is a variable representing area or visual mass. Now the equation for visual momentum is pv = cot(a/2)K

Now we can describe the visual momentum in both triangular shapes figure 3. as having the same momentum; but the image
on the left has seven times more velocity. It turns out that any isosceles (triangles with two sides of the same length) images of the
same height will have the same momentum. That is the mass of one makes up for the velocity of the other and vice versa.

figure 8... Equal momentum study of isoceles and scalene images ... three times diference in velocity 1981 36" x 48" oil paint on canvas shows an example of equal momentum in images other than isosceles. The isosceles image on the left has three times the velocity of the scalene (triangles having unequal sides) on the right and both have equal momentum.

Physics can define force (F) as the change in momentum per unit time. What does this mean? Take for example the egg toss game where a two person team competes with one person tossing a chicken egg to the other person. Each completion requires increasing the distance the egg is thrown-stepping backwards one step. The team who can toss and catch the egg the greatest distance without it breaking is the winner. In essence the object of the game is to change the momentum of the egg from maximum (when the egg is flying in the air) to minimum (when the egg is caught) over the greatest amount of time. figure 9. This can be done by slowing the egg gradually as it is caught; as opposed to catching the egg quickly in a short period of time, applying a greater
force usually breaking the egg. To reiterate: the change of momentum per time is force... if the egg is slowed quickly over a short period of
time it creates more force; if the egg is slowed over a long period of time it creates less force.

Let's talk about visual force. We know howto define visual momentum so we can talk about the change in momentum which is initially zero and is finally at maximum. We see this in the images of figure 3. but we don't know how much time has elapsed. However we can see a distance of travel implied figure 10. and we know from physics that the distance an object travels is equal to the velocity it traveled, multiplied by the duration of time elapsed during its course of travel. d=vt We know the distance implied figure 10. and we know the velocity. With that in mind we can solve the equation for
average time. This turns out to be half the base of the triangular image.figure 10. This makes sense: velocity =distance divided by time (physics)
and velocity=rise over run (visual kinematics). What we have defined is the average time (the final time plus the initial time divided by two) .
What we are seeking is the definition of final time which is equal to twice the average time or 2t. Using this we can describe visual force
Fv =(Kcot(a/2))/2t (the change in visual momentum per unit time). Physics also describes energy as force times distance or E=Fd. Thus
visual energy is Ev =d(Kcot(a/2))/2t.

figure 11. Equal force study of isoceles images 4 times the difference in momentum 1984 36" x 48" oil paint on canvas is an example of visual force: the left image has 4 times the momentum of the one on the right and they both have equal force.

So far, we have limited our context to discussing visual movement in one direction. A triangle actually moves in three directions. figure 12. Before we talk about pandirectional movement we need to introduce the concept of vectors. The definition of a vector is any thing with magnitude and direction. If we throw a baseball north at 30 miles per hour then it is a vector; 30 miles per hour is the magnitude and north is the direction. A weight of 230 lb. can be considered a vector, with the direction being down and the 230 lb. being the magnitude. So each of the three individual movements in a triangle can be considered a vector. figure 12. A vector sum is the addition of the individual components of two or more vectors. Let's try to illustrate. Consider three people holding ropes tied to a ring which is positioned between them. figure 13. Each of the people has created a force vector, that is they each pull with a certain force (magnitude) and a direction (toward themselves). Let's instruct the two people with the blue shirts to pull harder than the one with the red.
Which direction will the ring move? It won't move toward either of the people in blue who are pulling harder, it will move between the two. It
can be said that the vector sum of the three people pulling on the rope has a certain magnitude and is in a direction between the two people
with the blue shirts. We can add the individual vectors together to see which way the object moves. The final magnitude and direction of the
object is called the resultant vector ... basically the result.

Coming back to the triangle, we see that we have three visual momentum vectors or visual force vectors. figure 12. We can add the visual vectors together to see which way the vector sum points or which way the triangle visually moves. figure 14 ... Equal momentum vector sums 1984 36" x 48" oil paint on canvas is visually tricky because we may read the left triangle to be moving down and to the right, but if we think about the movement coming from the inside or center of the triangle then we can see the vector sum would indicate it to be moving up and to the left. figure 15  The right triangle is much easier to read. Actually both triangles are moving the same direction with the same visual momentum magnitude. figure 16 ... Equal force vector sums 1984 36" x 48" oil paint on canvas is the same study as figure 14. focusing attention on visual force.

The next three works in this series involve momentum and force vector sumations and a visual energy sumation of an entire field of triangles. Because there are no units for this type of study, I gave the unit chron for visual time, Kandinskys for visual force, Apollinaires per meter chron for visual momentum and Mattas for visual energy. The resultant vectors are noted under the triangle field in each piece.

figure 17 Psychovectors no.1 1988 36" x 48" oil paint on canvas.

figure 18 Psychovectors no.2 1988 36" x 48" oil paint on canvas.

## QUANTUM PONDERINGSQuantum Leap 1 (1980- photos and text 24" x 30" ) takes 2 identical photographs of a parking lot and labels one of them North and one of them South implying that the camera is facing that direction when the photo is taken. The text under the photo states that the photo with the camera facing north places you at a longitude of W 97 degrees 13 minutes 12 seconds and a latitude of N 37 degrees 41 minutes 30 seconds a date August 19 and a time of 6:38 PM standard. North is actually the direction the camera is facing for the photographs but what Kaz is asking you to do is to move yourself to believe that you are facing South in the right photo and notice that when you do the sun is now in the east which makes it morning and with the sun traversing the sky behind you, it would place you on the other side of the earth at summertime 6 months later thus the text under the photo with the camera facing south states: a longitude of E 83 degrees 47 minutes 48 seconds and latitude of S 37 degrees 41 minutes 30 seconds a date of February 18 and a time of 6:08 am standard. In affect what ones consciousness experiences is discontinuous leap through space and time or "quantum leap".

Another piece concerning itself with proprioception is Quantum Leap 2 (1980- photos and text 24" x 30" ) which is 4 photos that are taken inside 4 different Wendys restaurants. The camera now is actually facing the different directions that are stated under the pictures.